July 19, 2024

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Male oncology: types of cancer and symptoms


Awareness of the symptoms and early detection of cancer in many cases helps save lives.

This time we’ll talk about men’s ailments using the materials American Cancer Society Cleveland Clinic, Mayo Clinic, National Health Service UK. The material is based on current scientific research, is for informational purposes only and (important!) cannot serve as a basis for establishing a medical diagnosis.

Types of cancer in men

According to the World Health Organization, the most common types of cancer are breast, lung, colorectal, and prostate cancer. If we take data by gender, then men are most often diagnosed with prostate, lung, bladder, colorectal cancer and melanoma. In addition, only people of strong stature can have testicular and penile cancer (less common). In the initial stages, cancer is asymptomatic, so it is extremely important to be regularly examined by specialists.

Prostate cancer (prostate)

Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men. However, in every fifth (21% of cases) it is detected at stages when metastases have already appeared. Cleveland Clinic explains:

If you have been diagnosed with prostate cancer, it is most likely adenocarcinoma. It begins in the cells of glands, such as the prostate, which secrete fluid. It is extremely rare that prostate cancer forms from other types of cells. Less common are small cell carcinomas, transitional cell carcinomas, neuroendocrine tumors, and sarcomas.

Symptoms of Prostate Cancerwhich are initially absent and appear only with the progression of the disease, are the following:

  • frequent, sometimes urgent urge to urinate, especially at night;
  • weak, intermittent or frequent urination, pain or burning during urination (dysuria);
  • incomplete emptying of the bladder;
  • blood in semen or urine;
  • urinary incontinence;
  • fecal incontinence;
  • painful ejaculation and erectile dysfunction;
  • pain in the lower back, hip or pelvis.

Please note that not all prostate growths are cancer. Men may have benign prostatic hyperplasia or prostatitis (this is a benign condition that causes inflammation and swelling of the prostate gland). To establish an accurate diagnosis, you must consult a doctor. Increased risk of prostate cancer depends on the following factors:

  • age 50+ (approximately 60% of prostate cancer cases are diagnosed in the age group over 65 years);
  • family history of prostate cancer;
  • genetic predisposition;
  • smoking;
  • BMI > 30 (obesity);
  • sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

Top Tip for prevention – regularly undergo preventive examinations with a urologist, especially for men over 50 years of age. To reduce the risk, doctors advise men to maintain a healthy weight, be physically active, eat a healthy diet, not smoke, eat less red meat and sweets, and do not abuse alcohol.

Testicular cancer

This is a malignant tumor that mainly occurs in men between 14 and 40 years of age. A sign to look out for is a painless tumor in the testicle. Among symptoms:

  • swelling or fluid accumulation in the scrotum;
  • hardening or swelling in both testicles;
  • feeling of heaviness in the scrotum;
  • dull pain in the groin or lower abdomen;
  • pain or discomfort in the scrotum or testicle;
  • enlargement of the mammary glands, pain in them;
  • testicular shrinkage (atrophy).

This, experts say, is one of the most curable types of cancer. Factors that increase the risk of disease:

  • cryptorchidism (undescended testicle);
  • hypospadias (displacement of the opening of the urinary canal downwards);
  • family history of testicular cancer;
  • HIV AIDS ;
  • presence of genetic diseases.

Cleveland Clinic experts note that the risk of testicular cancer is often diagnosed in men with infertility. Testicular cancer cannot be prevented, but you can regularly perform preventative testicular self-examinations to promptly detect changes that should be reported to your doctor – testicular enlargement or shrinkage, the appearance of nodules or lumps.

Colorectal cancer

A malignant tumor of the large intestine and rectum, which is formed from epithelial cells, can occur in both sexes, but men are more susceptible to this disease. You should consult a doctor if the following occur: symptoms:

  • increased fatigue;
  • sudden weight loss;
  • dizziness, pallor of the skin and mucous membranes, palpitations and shortness of breath with minor physical exertion;
  • Intestinal dysfunction – prolonged constipation, intestinal spasms, diarrhea, diarrhea for no reason;
  • bloating and abdominal pain;
  • blood in stool.

As with other diseases, there are Factors that increase the risk of colorectal cancer:

  • lack of physical activity;
  • a diet high in red and processed meat;
  • obesity;
  • smoking and/or drinking alcohol;
  • inflammatory bowel diseases;
  • colorectal polyps;
  • family history of colon cancer or polyps.

Regular screening is the best way to prevent colon cancer. Most cases begin with a polyp, a small growth in the colon or rectum. Screening can help detect colon cancer at an early stage, when it is more treatable.

To establish a diagnosis and receive treatment, be sure to consult a doctor! The American Cancer Society especially recommends regular screening for men over 45 years of age.



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